Lab Description

The American Red Cross (ARC) National Neutrophil Reference Laboratory is a worldwide leader in neutrophil immunobiology.

The detection of antibodies to human neutrophil alloantigens (HNA) remains very technically difficult due to the labile nature of granulocytes and the frequent presence of HLA Class I antibodies which also react with neutrophils. Consequently, expertise in this area has been confined to a small number of laboratories. One of the founding members of the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) Working Party on Granulocyte Immunobiology our laboratory has participated in its’ quality assurance exercises, the International Granulocyte Immunology Workshop (IGIW), since its’ inception in 1989.

Why you should select the ARC National Neutrophil Laboratory


As a leader in neutrophil immunology testing several reasons why you should select the Red Cross laboratory services are listed below.

1. We are only laboratory in the United States that routinely utilizes a combination of the granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT) and granulocyte agglutination test (GAT) in detecting HNA antibodies.

a. The ISBT Working Party on Granulocyte Immunobiology has recommended that a combination of GIFT and GAT remains the best means of HNA antibody detection, and has been the standard approach in most laboratories participating in the IGIW1,2,3,4.

2. The Red Cross laboratory has achieved a 100% score when detecting and identifying HNA antibodies in the 2008-2015 IGIW surveys.

3. The laboratory is one of four that are responsible for organizing, preparing and distributing IGIW survey samples to participating laboratories.

4. The only neutrophil laboratory in the United States that routinely offers a monoclonal antibody immobilization of neutrophil antigen (MAINA) assay. This test is used to distinguish neutrophil antibodies from HLA Class I antibodies when both are present in the same specimen. MAINA is highly sensitive and is suggested when testing for neutrophil antibodies in children with a presumptive autoimmune neutropenia diagnosis.

5. The laboratory includes extremely rare donor cells in our neutrophil panel that assists in the detection of HNA-2, HNA-3a, HNA-3b, HNA-4a, HNA-4b, HNA-5a and FcγRIIIb (CD16) antibodies.

6. The laboratory provides phenotyping for HNA-2. Other neutrophil laboratories that provide molecular typing for HNA alleles do not provide HNA-2 typing results.



1. Bux J, Chapman J. Report on the Second International Granulocyte Workshop. Transfusion 1997;37:977-83.

2. Lucas G, Rogers S, et al. Report on the Fourth International Granulocyte Immunology Workshop: progress toward quality assessment. Transfusion 2002;42:462-68.

3. Bierling P, Bux J, Fung YL, Schuller R, et al. Recommendations of the ISBT Working Party on Granulocyte Immunobiology for leucocyte antibody screening in the investigation and prevention of antibody-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury. Vox Sang 2009;96:266-69.

4. Lucas G, Porcelijin L, Fung YL, Schuller R, et al. External quality assessment of human neutrophil antigen (HNA)-specific antibody detection and HNA genotyping from 2000 to 2012. Vox Sang 2013;105:259-69.


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