Iron Information for All Donors
What all blood donors should know about iron and hemoglobin
Before every blood donation, a screening test measures hemoglobin from a single drop of blood obtained from a fingerstick.
It is important for blood donors to understand how hemoglobin may be affected by the level of iron in your blood. Read below to learn more detailed information.
Hemoglobin and Iron
Hemoglobin is a protein in your blood that contains iron and gives blood its red color. Hemoglobin carries oxygen from your lungs to nourish all the tissues in your body. The Red Cross checks your hemoglobin level before every blood donation to protect your health. You must have a hemoglobin level of at least 12.5 gm/dl to donate blood for another person.
If your hemoglobin is too low, you may not be able to donate blood that day. If you are deferred from blood donation, you may have a condition called anemia or your hemoglobin may be normal for you. Learn more about normal hemoglobin values.
Iron is an essential mineral found in our diet and is part of hemoglobin. You need iron to make new red blood cells to replace the ones lost in a blood donation. Low iron may cause anemia or make it worse.
No. The American Red Cross does not measure iron levels before blood donation. You can have a normal hemoglobin level and be accepted for blood donation, but still have a low iron level.
The amount of iron you need will depend on your age, gender, body type, genetics – and how often you donate blood.
You can boost your iron level by eating foods rich in iron, eating foods that increase your body’s ability to absorb iron and avoiding substances that block iron absorption.
The amount and the type of iron contained in food is important. Food has two types of iron: heme iron and non-heme iron.
Heme iron is found in meat and animal products and is most easily absorbed by your body. Some foods with heme iron are beef, turkey (especially dark meat), chicken, lamb, pork, and liver.
Non-heme iron is not as easily absorbed by your body, but is still a good source of iron and essential if you do not eat meat. Foods with non-heme iron are breakfast cereals (fortified with iron), breads and pasta (whole grain and enriched), tofu, beans, lentils, peanuts, dried fruit (raisins), and eggs.
Red meat not only contains a lot of heme iron, but also increases absorption of non-heme iron. Foods high in Vitamin C, like tomatoes, oranges and other citrus fruits, and red, yellow and orange peppers, also boosts iron uptake into your body.
Yes, some food and drink will decrease iron absorption like:
- Coffee or tea
- Red wine
- High fiber foods
- Some medications like antacids
- High calcium foods (like milk or cheese)
This doesn’t mean you have to cut these out of your diet. You should just consider avoiding these items with your iron rich meals. For example, have your coffee or tea before or after the meal, but not with the meal.
Most people cannot get too much iron from food they eat to cause problems. Some people have a condition called hereditary hemochromatosis (iron overload), which damages their organs if it is not treated. At this time, the American Red Cross does not accept blood donors if they have a diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis and are being treated by their physician.